Monday, June 1, 2020

Financial Ratio Calculations

Financial ratios are useful indicators of a firms performance and financial situation. Most ratios can be calculated from information provided by the financial statements. Financial ratios can be used to analyse trends and to compare the firms financials to those of other firms. Sometimes, ratio analysis can predict future bankruptcy of a business. As we can see the performance of Systems Integrated PLC is related to the areas of profitability, efficiency and liquidity. First of all, the profitability of a company is clearly shown through the Return on Capital Employed ratio (R.O.C.E) and the gross profit percentage, the second one is reduced from 2009 to 2010 but about the first we can say that is getting higher. Moreover, we have the gross profit margin ratio and we can see that year by year is getting lower and this is not good for our business .Profitability depends on the obsolescence/damage/theft, or even the under/overvaluation of stock. Also, it depends on the general fall or increase in selling price. Utility companies tend to have low R.O.C.E ratios because of the high investments in fixed assets. For example, a high R.O.C.E may be due to the fact that some firms are using old-aged assets which are almost fully depreciated. Liquidity 4) Acid Test = (Current Assets Inventors) / Current Liabilities = (1822 935) / 1313 = 0.67:1 5) Inventory Holding Period = (Average Inventory / Cost of Sales) * 365 = [(850 + 935) / 2] / 7540 = 43 days 6) Customer Collection Period = (Debtors / Sales) * 365 = (842 / 11178) * 365 = 27 days 7) Current Ratio = Current Assets / Current Liabilities = 1822 / 1313 = 1.4:1 8) Suppliers Payment Period = (Suppliers / Purchases) * 365 = (1313 / 7625) * 365 = 63 days 9) Interest Cover = EBIT / Interest Expense = 1366 / 105 = 13 times Secondly, liquidity is mostly shown by the current ratio and the acid test ratio. A current ratio of 2.5:1 is considered to be adequate. In addition to this, a high current ratio indicates that the firm is tying up its resources in unproductive assets. Also, indicates slow moving stock and slow paying customers. The sufficiency of a current ratio depends on the composition of the current assets and how soon the short/long term obligations ha ve to be settled. Also an acid test ratio of 1.1:1 is considered to be sufficient, too. The numerator of a liquidity ratio is part or all of current assets. Possibly the most common liquidity ratio is the current ratio . The problem with the current ratio as a liquidity ratio is that inventories, a current asset, may not be converted to cash for several months, while many current liabilities must be paid within 90 days. Thus a more conservative liquidity ratio is the acid test ratio. Efficiency 10) Fixed Assets usage = Net Sales / Fixed Assets = 11178 / 2832 = 3.9 times 11) Total Assets usage = Net Sales / Total Assets = 11178 / 4653.5 = 2.4 times Lastly, efficiency is another important fact in a company. It is combined in three periods: the customers collection period, the suppliers payment period and the inventory holding period. We can see that at the fixed assets usage ratio of System Integrated plc has increased from the 2.9 of the industry to 3.9 times. In the second ratio, the total asset usage, System Integrated plc has almost the same percentage with the industry and this is good news for our company because is a very good percentage. The fact that some firms holding period is obsolete and that they have a slow moving stock is completely because of the high inventory holding specific period. Although, these firms aim at reducing this ratio so they could be more efficient and productive. Accounting is the language of business and its numbers are pertinent convey financial information. A lot of people are confused with the accounting numbers. The importance is high to know and to learn how to find meaning in those numbers because it helps you to understand where your business is going. Measuring accounting numbers and business transactions need a context to be significant. A list of numbers doesnt mean much without knowing what you are looking at. You can find meaning about the accounting numbers by looking at the description labels, such as customers names, account names or vendor names. Moreover accounting numbers are usually used for analysis and to answer questions. For example if you want to know how much rent expenses you have left in your budget, you need to look at accounting numbers. They can provide you preacute;cis information about how much rent you have spent and how much you have left cover. Accounting quantifies operations and gives people the aptitude to see a situation from a different viewpoint. You can make impo rtant decisions if you look your sales numbers for the year and when you mix that with expenses, you can gain many issues, such as if the expenses are too high for sales or if payroll its usually low. Furthermore, accounting numbers help us in many ways. For instance by looking at accounting numbers you can easily recognise old accounts receivable that you have to collect and also with the accounts you know who owes you and for how long. These numbers and accounts are helpful and valuable to any organization or a business. On the other hand, accounting number have their weaknesses too. We consider many reasons and factors for weaknesses in numbers in financial statements. Some factors are: the creative accounting, the off balance sheet financing, bias, the managerial pressures and objectivity. Creative accounting it is a firm of misrepresenting the performance and position of a business. This means that accountants apply particular accounting methods to a transaction to make s tatements look the way they want them to look. Companies are free to choose which policies to apply, so there is a space in regulations to perform creative accounting. One of the most important things is that some planned attempts to materially misstate accounting figures are illegal. The most common examples include tax evasion schemes. Besides that, some Off-balance sheet financing issues occur when the accountant does not put everything on the balance sheet. Usually Off-balance sheet financing aims in making the business to seem more valuable by inflating the value of assets and does not include some liabilities. Additionally we have Bias who is causing the nepotism of the preferences or partial. Bias influences with an unfair way users of accounting information. Bias is also broken up in categories of Disclosure bias, Estimation bias, Attributional bias, Judgement bias. Inventors are usually influenced by disclosure bias and estimation bias lead auditors to verify false informat ion. Bias does not affect only numerically but it also affects narrative reporting which represents the image and icon of a business management. Judgement bias affects the financial reporting subliminally, inaccuracies might also occur from unconscious bias. Accounting decisions require professional judgement. Ambiguity builds upon concept of representation and occurs of the representation of accrual accounting and cash flow. The problem that is made by ambiguity is that ambiguity surrounds accounting numbers and so numbers does not actually exist but are estimated. If you are looking to make your own financial ratio calculations then take a look at our Financial Ratio Calculator

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Narrative Essay on My Favorite College Teacher

Narrative Essay on My Favorite College Teacher My Favorite College Teacher There are many different teachers in college and high school that arouse the most controversial emotions. Students have different criteria when choosing their favorites; some of them prefer those who don’t give hard homework assignments, or don’t ask difficult questions. Some students like it when teachers don’t bother them at all and just read their lectures. But I am not one of them. As for me, the most important criterion for my favorite teacher is devotion to the subject he teaches. This feature may seem to be simple and primitive for people, as it is generally accepted fact that to choose a profession of a teacher a person has to love it. It is sad, but those who are really devoted to what they do are really hard to be found. But if you succeed to meet such teachers in your academic career, you are really lucky. They stand out from all the rest, as when they read lectures, they don’t use any additional materials, but only find some captivating illustrations of what they talk about. When they speak, it is really visible that they love what they do, as there is such a shining in their eyes that cannot be missed. Unfortunately, many students don’t like such teachers, as often they have strict requirements as to preparation to classes and ask many questions. But these students just don’t want to know this subject and don’t want to bother with it at all. But all those who are interested in studying will surely appreciate such bright personalities, as they will contaminate such students with love to the subject and show all its peculiarities. I consider myself to be a happy person, as I had such a teacher in college. He taught Biology and it was really interesting to attend his classes and listen to his lectures. I acquired

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Consumer Behavior Involvement Essay - 1946 Words

Introduction For decades, marketers have been attempting to resolve the mystery of consumer behaviour and find out how and why they involve themselves in certain ways. Involvement is a term used in several disciplines but in regards to marketing, many authors define it to be a variable of motivation, variable differing in person but despite the several proposed definitions by Zaichkowsky (1986), Baker (2002) etc., there is no set definition available. Over the decades, three key areas of involvement have been identified to be with advertising, product and purchase. Of these, this paper will be examining purchase involvement which is generally described to be relating to level of interest in the purchase process (Beatty, Homer, and Kahle,†¦show more content†¦This caused panic to parents about how I would handle myself alone in UK. Consequently we decided to get it straight away. The product’s features was what had got me as well as my parents to buy it: Product with maximum features working to ease the monitoring of my condition, ease of training, quality, look, advanced technology, warranty, cost, availability worldwide and services provided. The product had to be bought from a nearby country Kenya and not Tanzania (home country) due to two reasons- 1) my diabetes was first diagnosed in Nairobi so my medical records and my main doctor was already there, 2)pumps are not available in Tanzania or the rest of East Afr ica. The doctor himself was diabetic and using the pump he recommended. He showed the ease of use and well as how the machine affected lifestyle. This increased confidence in me and convinced my parents to make the purchase due to positive changes it would bring. It was eventually purchased because I succeeded training. I got the permission from my parents to study abroad. I was confident with the functions and that support would be given even if I was living elsewhere. T-shirt The second product I recently purchased was a t-shirt from Bon Marche in Leicester. This purchase would be categorised as high involvement purchase. Since I was new to the UK market of clothing, I asked my cousin list of shops for qualityShow MoreRelatedInvolvement And Motivation : An Important Tool For Defining The Behavior Of The Consumers Essay1097 Words   |  5 PagesInvolvement and Motivation is considered as an important tool for defining the behaviour of the consumers. It plays a vital role in across all kinds of marketing strategies. In this essay, the term Involvement, Motivation and its relationship between those two factors and further consumer behaviour theories such as self, attitudes and ethics will be analysed. It will begin with the definition of Involvement and link with Motivation will be examined. Then, types of Involvement will be discussed. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Foundations of Management Managerial Ideology

Question: Discuss about theFoundations of Managementfor Managerial Ideology. Answer: Introduction According to Bendix quote which defines Managerial Ideology, it can be asserted that it implies to the middleman or womans ideology that gives them the ability to effectively administrate other people in their respective fields of expertise. Managerial ideology also asserts that a middle person is neither capitalist owner nor even an entirely subordinate person that provides a platform for a manager to act as not only an organizational bridge, but also a bureaucratic bridge. According to Bendixs quote, ideology is defined as being all ideas which are espoused by, or for, those who exercised authority in economic enterprises, and which seek to explain and justify that authority (Ellen McBarron et al, 2014). It is therefore regarded as being an instrument or tool of capital ideology that is comprised of a picture of both atomization and communist uniformity. Gareth Morgan is known to use numerous metaphors in showing various organizations in ways that are very imaginative. In essence, managerial ideologies are actually those which consider numerous facts and then eventually present an interpretation or decision. According to Morgan (Nottingham, 2016), metaphors are defined as being any form of attempts that are aimed at understanding a specific element of experience based on the terms of the other one. This implies that any attempt aimed at comprehending the environment is actually applying the use of metaphors. One of the significant metaphors used by Morgan that is closely linked to Bendixs quote defining managerial ideology is one which views organizations as brains. An organization is viewed as being brains according to Gareth Morgans metaphor because it is comprised of different people who contribute different ideas for the betterment and enhancement of the organization. This metaphor is quite true because an organization as brains helps individuals to not only recognize, but also cope with the idea which asserts that all organizational theories and management are actually based on implicit metaphors or images which persuade individuals to understand, see, and even imagine different situations or circumstances using partial ways (Sinkovics, 2016). I genuinely concur with the statement that rational bureaucratic organizations ought to come up with best decisions regarding ways or reaching goals and solving problems. Based on the reading of chapter five of the book, it can truly be asserted that some of the major obstacles that prevents organizations from the development of best decisions and reaching goals and resolving problems include among others failure by such organizations to have clearly set out goals and objectives (Maxwell Carboni, 2016.). Others include: Financial and Economic Barriers-The focusing on economic growth as opposed to the welfare or rights of people coupled with environmental limits and processes highly contributes to failure of an organization to not only achieve its goals but also to solve any emerging problems. This indicates that some organizations do not shift from the general worldview of treating their environment as being part and parcel of the economy. Innovational barriers-This is also a significant obstacle that has prevented some of the organizations towards arriving at best decisions and also solving their problems. This is based on the fact that such organizations actually lack what is termed as innovation-oriented research (McCabe, 2016). Failure to have a closer connection or link between the economy and research institutes makes such organizations unable to overcome problems associated to the transfer of knowledge to the application in the real life situations. Social barriers-population growth, coupled with unsustainnable consumption as well as patterns of production among wealthy people has actually led to social challenges which have hindered some organizations in reaching their goals and solving their problems. It can truly be asserted that some of the organizations or companies across the world have more difficult moments regarding reaching goals as opposed to others because they have low financial capital that can be used in coming up with clear goals and objectives. In addition to that, small organizations, as opposed to bigger ones are usually unable of coming up with achievable goals and resolving of problems because of financial limitations (Achtenhagen Mierzejewska, 2016). Some of the goals they are unable to deal with are expansion goals while the problems they deal with are financial limitations. The term common moral purpose as used by Banard is actually a good way of describing what happens in most work organizations because despite the fact that work cannot be all that moral, it can be in some way be morally neutral. However, the type or sense of social bonding that exists between workers or employees in an organization can actually serve as not only a powerful aspect, but also a positive social function (Pettinger, 2016). The common moral purpose is a good description of what goes on at the workplace because it is true that most of the successful organizations across the world are indeed those whose stakeholders not only act decisively but also consistently in the achievement of innovations as well as in the development of relationships of high quality status. It can also be truly asserted that the identification of any common moral purpose in any organization is quite essential because it helps all people in the organization become aware of a common purpose and thus stri ve in ensuring that such a purpose or goal is attained within the set timeframe. The common moral purpose is indeed a good description of what occur in organizations because it provides an insight on how organizations or companies depend on the willingness of the people both within and outside it to become secure. This is done through the use of different inducements such as personal power, prestige, chances for distinction, and even material rewards (Alkatiri et al, 2016). This term also better presents a description of what happens in the organization because it indicates that such efforts, efforts aimed at securing an organization, should actually be directed or channeled towards a specific purpose and that the inculcation of beliefs in the actual existence of a common purpose. This is important because it is required by any organization in the achievement of its set executive functions. It is also true that the most vital component in any successful entity is formation of a collective purpose that makes all participants to become morally bound. It is a common notion that that transformation of organizational forms has significantly led to various paradoxical demands in which most organizations desire to attains both economies of scope and economies of scale. Organizations also desire to not only specialize, but also become flexible; however, it is important to note that the achievement of such status by organizations implies various repercussions especially in organization and management (Liebowitz Frank, 2016). They are all important because while economies of scale of involve reductions by an organization in average costs per unit that arises from an increase in the production scale for a single product type, the economies of scope on the other hand will comprise of lowering average costs through the production of more product types. Both types of economies of scale are quite important and should peacefully coexist because they come up due to inverse relationships which exist between the output levels and the average costs per unit. Economies of scale are quite important because they help an organization to effectively place emphasis on the output level of one specific product while the economies of scope are quite important for an organization because they place emphasis on various products which are offered. Specialization is important because it helps an organization to effectively focus on production of a limited scope or number of products to get more attention. It is important to note that economies of scale, economies of scope, specialization, and flexibility are all important and they should be given utmost consideration by organizations To achieve profitability, organizations need to ascertain the appropriate circumstances that they ought to apply for each of the aspects above. Reference List Achtenhagen, L. and Mierzejewska, B., 2016. The development of media management as an academic field: Tracing the contents and impact of its three leading journals. In Managing Media Firms and Industries (pp. 23-42). Springer International Publishing. John R. Schermerhorn, Paul Davidson, David Poole, Peter Woods, Alan Simon, Ellen McBarron 2014, Management Foundations and Applications, 2nd Asia-Pacific Edition, John Wiley Sons Australia, Ltd ISBN 978-1-118-56238-3 Liebowitz, J. and Frank, M. eds., 2016. Knowledge management and e-learning. CRC press. Maxwell, S.P. and Carboni, J.L., 2016. Civic Engagement through Social Media: Strategic Stakeholder Management by High-Asset Foundations. International Journal of Public Administration in the Digital Age (IJPADA), 4(1), pp.35-48. Nottingham, P., 2016. The use of work-based learning pedagogical perspectives to inform flexible practice within higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, pp.1-17. Pettinger, R., 2016. Towards an Agreed Body of Knowledge, Understanding, Skills and Expertise for Managers: Managing in Turbulent Times. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 221, pp.1-10. Sinkovics, N., 2016. Enhancing the foundations for theorising through bibliometric mapping. International Marketing Review, 33(3), pp.327-350. Yasmin, A., Aryadi, A., Widya, A., Suwirya, A.P., Handayani, A., Yasa, A., Hidayatullah, A., Sudharsono, A., Nursidiq, A.A., Sadiati, A.I. and Alkatiri, A.A., 2016. Original ResearchHypertension in rural area: The determinants of left ventricular geometric alteration among hypertensive patients at Kubu Village, Karangasem, BaliEffectiveness comparison between lisinopril and amlodipine in Melanesian patients with hypertensionAn experimental study of -D-Glucans exctract of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptides as anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant in patients at high-risk of atherosclerosisEchocardiographic findings among hypertensive patients in rural area: The .... European Heart Journal Supplements, 18(suppl B), pp.B19-B50.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Michigan School for the Deaf free essay sample

Through the years the school has faced many challenges such as: funding, maintenance, up keep of advancing technology and enrollment. The single most important issue is funding without funding there would be no residential school for the deaf children and the would be forced to be mainstreamed into public school. I propose that parents should be told about Michigan School for the Deaf. Driving down Miller Road in Flint, Michigan and you are probably wondering what the old buildings standing there are for and what came about to how the school Michigan School for the Deaf became about? I will help you better understand. MSD was started in 1848, but it did not start out as MSD. Heck, they didnt even know what they were going to call it or where it was going to be located, they just knew the deaf and blind needed a school to go to as well as â€Å"normal† students. We will write a custom essay sample on Michigan School for the Deaf or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A State Legislature Governor Ransom, who just so happened to be the governor at the time, wanted to give the idea of having a joint school for the deaf and dumb and blind. A guy by the name of E. H. Thomson proposed a bill to establish an institution called Michigan Asylum for Educating the deaf and dumb and blind. The bill was later enacted into a law and signed April 3rd, 1848. It took a good 28 years to get a school started. In the 1820s a state sponsored school was proposed to be established in Detroit, Michigan but it was never materialized. A few students who were blind were taught in a preparatory school at the University of Michigan located in Romeo, Michigan during the 1840s. Children in the 1840s were not educated in programs, Michigan did not send deaf and blind students to schools like many other states were practicing. Villages of Flint, Romeo, and Kalamazoo extended offers of donations of land, cash, and building materials. In November 1849, the board selected the proposed site for the hospital for the insane and the also the proposed for the school. The hospital was to be located in Kalamazoo and the school was in Flint. The funding law was passed in 1848, but because of financial difficulties the school did not start until 1854. In the year of 1851 the board voiced the idea to joint the deaf and blind because having a separate school was out of the question. They proposed the idea of having of having erected class rooms suitable and separate for the deaf and blind. Students who could afford the school financially, were the suitable age, and had the strength would board in the Village of Flint, the students who couldnt afford were accommodated under the charge of the Principle. The month of November in 1853 the board offered Reverend Barnabas Maynard Fay the position of Principle. Fay had previous experience as a teacher at Indiana Institution for the Blind and the Institution for Deaf and Dumb in New York. January 1854, Fay was appointed and the school was to open February 1, 1854 in Flint. February 6, 1854 the first student was enrolled, April 18, 1854 it was reported they had 12 students, 11 deaf mute and one blind. Thirteen years later an act was passed to change the name of Michigan Asylum to Michigan Institution for Educating the Dead and Dumb and the Blind. In 1879, the blind were separated the school for the blind from the school for the deaf. In 1887 Michigan School for the Deaf was given, not sure what year Michigan School for the Blind was relocated to Lansing, Michigan. As of 1937 MSD became jurisdiction of the State Board of Education and still remains to this day. (deaftartars. com) You may be wondering why I am writing a proposal for MSD when I am neither deaf or blind. Its a simple answer, family. My grandpa is a Tartar alumni, being deaf mute and completely blind. He was not always blind, but he has been deaf since the day he was born. My family moved from Arkansas to Michigan for the school. You are probably once again thinking, are you guys crazy? No, we are not, they just wanted best from their highly intelligent son. A lot of people degrade deaf and blind individuals, they see them as being different from us so they automatically call them dumb. It hurts when I hear these individuals being called that because I know first hand that they are not anywhere near that. They have to retain a bunch of knowledge in their brain as well as us, but the difference they have to use their hands where we use are mouths. It is an even harder task because just like us they have to learn different languages also. You are probably really confused as to how a deaf and blind person communicates am I right? I will inform you, it is a lot harder then a regular deaf person. They use what is called tactile sign language, it is when the person talking takes the other persons hand and signs into the palm of the hand, but only using one hand most of the time. Luckily, my grandpa was one of the lucky was to get a great education considering there are a lot of them that are not as lucky example, Matt Hamill. Matt Hamill, found out at a very young age that he was profoundly deaf. His grandfather would not let him go to a school that would help him better learn how to communicate with every day people. He became a star wrestler, even got into Purdue University. Soon to be kicked out because he was not taught sign language and could not comprehend what the interrupters were saying to him, let alone what they were doing. Matt later went to Rochester College of Technology (RTC). There he learned everything he needed to know and became a National Champion Wrestler. Michigan School for the Deaf, is not only for deaf students. MSD is also a school of choice for anyone, but it definitely an expensive school. Tuition is $30,600 and for the resident intermediate school district it is $9,500. Many parents of deaf children do not know that there is a school for deaf children, reasoning why enrollment is down and why MSD does not have a lot of funding. (The Hammer) The amount of enrollment for MSD has gone down so far over the years which is causing some major funding for the school. Public schools get $9,000 for each deaf student that is enrolled into their school district. Most of the students and their parents do not even know that Michigan School for the Deaf even exist. I believe in order to get funding up at MSD a group of people need to go from school district to school across Michigan and have an assembly or a benefit for these parents. They can sit down and talk about what can happen at Michigan School for the Deaf for their child, why it is a better ideal school for their child to go to, and why their school district will not tell them about MSD. I bet you didnt know that for every deaf child a public school has they get $9,000, that is $9,000 that MSD does not et because if that child leaves the district to go to MSD that district loses that money and has to give it to MSD. Deaf culture is a very hard culture to understand. A lot of time learning their language and learning how they have to learn is a very hard way. Its not easy teaching a deaf child math. You have to make sure you never mix the numbers up or how you sign a very long equation. The public school really isnt using the money other then to pay an interrupter for each deaf child that is at that school. They get paid anywhere from $30-$70/hour. For one week of a school year saying that the child attends school for 35 hours that week, that interrupter earns $2,450 just one week! So in all honesty that school is losing money rather then gaining it from/for that child. Even fundraisers for the school would help. Like do a huge sporting event, say that Powers Catholic football team plays a huge game there and half the proceeds go to MSD or even showing movies like The Hammer and paying three dollars to watch it and having snacks where all the proceeds go to the school. I just think that more parents need to know that Michigan School for the Deaf is there so that their child gets a better education for their situation. If Michigan School for the Deaf does not get their funding up they are going to have to shut down and main stream all of their students into public schools. I believe that every parent with a deaf child is a very lucky parent. My grandparents are both deaf and they are highly intelligent. My grandpa is deaf and blind he is what people call the wooden toy maker. He carves fire trucks, old ford trucks, helicopters, and trains out of wood. He has been doing this 1991. my grandpa has no idea what we look like but he knows its us by a simple wave of hi in his hand or a handshake. A lot of people I know call deaf people dumb, but they are far from that. I bet if every person got a chance to have a conversation one to one with a deaf person they would think completely different of how they see each person. They are unique in their own way just like every other person in this world. I think it is amazing how they have a school to go to for their environment as well as we have one for ours. I think taking that away from them is cruel and horrible. Having a child that is deaf is a remarkable thing, do not let something that has been around for years be taken away because someone can afford to keep it up and running. This state needs to understand that they have a historical building in their hands, they need to figure out a way to keep it up and running. Remember, No Child Left Behind. Work Cited Michigan School for the Deaf. January 2011. December 2011 . Debbie Jenkins. Personal interview. December 2011. Harold Riley. Personal interview. December 2011. The Hammer. Dir. Oren Kapal. Perf. Russell Harvard, Raymond J. Barry, and Shoshannah Stern. 2011. Film.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Example of a Formal Letter †English

Example of a Formal Letter – English Free Online Research Papers Example of a Formal Letter English (100 Level Course) Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing with regard to one of the letters to the director published in Monday’s edition of your newspaper referring to the incorrect idea that society has of the younger generation’s behaviour encouraged by what is shown on our cinema and TV screens about us.I am in almost complete agreement with the author. I am sick and tired of how teenagers are shown to the general public as anarchists who do not respect anyone but themselves and their friends, nor their families or their superiors in both university and at work. There are surely lots of youngsters who might fit in these profile but as many as there is all other age groups. Being a teenager does not mean being disrespectful of society. It is only a period of your life that does not necessarily imply behaving without caring about the consequences of your acts. However, the TV industry seems to be determined to build a deformed image of our behaviour. In almost every serial, soap opera, film, documentary or even cartoon, the teenage characters appear to live out of any script. They have always the most antisocial personalities and hardly rely on anyone, have an argument with one of their relatives practically once a day and do nothing at school but smoke in the bathrooms and miss classes deliberately. Therefore, I would strongly suggest that these television stations and film enterprises change their minds and reflect also what the other half of the younger generation do, how they struggle to get on with a healthy working life. Yours faithfully Student Name Research Papers on Example of a Formal Letter - EnglishWhere Wild and West MeetEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenStandardized TestingComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoCapital PunishmentArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Assess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropePersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product

Thursday, February 27, 2020

International Banking Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

International Banking - Essay Example The 2008 crisis is considerably the first crisis in the era of globalization, as caused by a number of factors which include funding liquidity, and market liquidity (Kolb, 2009, p. 10). Funding liquidity is the availability of sufficient cash in the capital deposit of a financial institution. This means that funding liquidity risks occur whenever banks cannot fund their own businesses. Market liquidity, on the other hand, takes into considerations issues to do with trade institutions which are easily able to do business within the available markets; therefore, market liquidity risk factors are the difficult situations when any market is not sufficient enough for easy trade activities (Pedersen, 2008, p. 13). The roles of Funding Liquidity and Market Liquidity in the 2008 Crisis According to Strahan Philip (2012), funding liquidity risks and market liquidity risks contributed much to the occurrence of the 2008 financial and economic downturn. Towards the end of 2007 and the beginning of 2008, the consequences of banks giving liquidity to loaners and creditors in the world’s leading economies was felt throughout the globe. The banks in the USA began lending loan liquidity to people; this led to weakening of their capital bases. It additionally exposed banks to funding liquidity risks, which eventually lead to bank runs. ... This saw the JP Morgan Chase bank running out of cash in its deposit pots. The issue of securitization is another cause of the financial crisis. American banks came into one pool in order to create a sense of security while giving out irresponsible loans. This proved dangerous since the banks gave out risky loans to many individuals who could not afford to service these loans at high interest rates as was expected of them (Pinyo, 2008, pp. 1-6). Due to runs, the banking institutions got involved into the trend of cash borrowing in order to create more securitization. As a consequence, property prices started fluctuating, thereby causing panic even in the Sub-prime mortgage market (Rhodes & Stelter, 2010, p. 32). Banks that did not have enough cash in their accounts began repossessing their high value properties such as buildings. Bigger banks, on the other hand, started to buy securities from the minor banking institutions with the intentions of saving the economic situation as had p revailed. However, this instead resulted into greater damages within the real world economy (Weisberg, 2010, p. 46). At far, all these economic turnovers resulted into funding liquidity risks and market liquidity risks within the banks themselves, hence scaring away a number of investors who then reacted by withdrawing their deposits; and thus, commodities prices fell to the extreme levels. The chart below indicates Liquidity Spiral as caused by the market and funding liquidity risks. Sources: (Pedersen, & Garlean, 2007; Pedersen, & Brunnermeier, 2008) How to measure bank funding liquidity risk and market liquidity risk There are several ways of measuring funding